Schisms, Reformation, Recovery & Renewal
by Allan Carlson
Christendom was torn by two great schisms. The first came in 1054, when disagreements over the precise nature of the Trinity and papal preeminence led to mutual excommunications by Patriarch Michael Cerularius in Constantinople and Pope Leo IX in Rome. The second came in 1517, when the Augustinian monk and theologian Martin Luther challenged church doctrines pertaining to redemption and salvation, which quickly devolved into a full rejection of papal authority.
In both cases, Christian rupture occurred at a time of moun . . .