Sunday, August 4
Acts 21:1-14: Luke now carefully traces the stages of PaulŐs journey southward, first noting his arrival at Cos that Sunday evening. This island, dedicated to Asklepios, the god of healing, was perhaps special to the "beloved physician" as the homeland of Hippocrates, the father of Greek medicine, who sat under the famous plane tree and instructed his medical students in the art of healing. PaulŐs company arrive at Rhodes on Monday and at Patara on Tuesday. Leaving this coastline vessel, they embark on a sea-going ship on their way to the Phoenician city of Tyre, some four-hundred nautical miles to the southeast, sailing around Cyprus. Finding Christians at Tyre (cf. 15:3), they remain for a week, and then press on to Ptolemais, twenty-five miles to the south, and then Caesarea, forty miles further (or thirty-two miles if they went by land). One nearly gains the impression that Luke is copying out notes from a journal that he maintained on the trip, and one of the general effects of this listing of ports is to heighten the suspense of PaulŐs approach to Jerusalem. Even back at Miletus he had spoken of the prophetic warnings that he was receiving with respect to this trip to Jerusalem (20:23), warnings later repeated at Tyre (21:4). Here at Caesarea, however, such forebodings are intensified by the prophecies of Agabus, whom we met earlier in 11:27, and the daughters of Philip the deacon (21:8-11). Finally, LukeŐs attention to detail, with which he narrates each step of this journey, renders all the more remarkable the omission of Antioch. After both the first (14:25) and second (18:22) missionary journeys, Paul took care to report back to the church at Antioch, but on this occasion, and with only a hint of explanation (20:16), he does not do so. Clearly, Paul is looking elsewhere now; his eyes are on Rome, as he had recently suggested in a letter to that city (Romans 1:%; 15:22-28).
Monday, August 5
2 Peter 1:1-11: The reasons often adduced for questioning the Petrine authorship of this epistle are not convincing. There is, for instance, the argument that this epistle, because it seems to rely on the Epistle of Jude, cannot have been written early enough for Peter to write it (that is, prior to PeterŐs death in the Neronic persecution after the summer of 64). This argument, however, presupposes a late date for the Epistle of Jude, whereas there is nothing in that latter work that demands a late date for it. Jude could well have been written rather early in New Testament history (cf. our introduction to Jude). Likewise, there is an argument that says that the great difference in style between 1 Peter and 2 Peter demands that there have been two separate authors for these two works. This stylistic difference, however, is easily explained in another way, if one bears in mind that 1 Peter was written through the pen of a secretary (Silvanus), who may very well have been translating from Aramaic to Greek even as Peter dictated the letter (cf. 1 Peter 5:12); if one remembers that Paul himself seems to have used Silvanus as a secretary sometimes (the two letters to the Thessalonians), this would likewise account for the similarity in style between 1 Peter and the letters of Paul. In short, there is no adequate reason for denying the Petrine authorship of 2 Peter. If, as seems likely (though not absolutely positive) the letter referred to in 2 Peter 3:1 is 1 Peter, then 2 Peter was obviously written later than the other. Indeed, it seems to have been written near the end of the apostleŐs life (cf. 1:14). Moreover, the reference to 1 Peter in 2 Peter 3:1 suggests that the latter epistle was written for the same recipients; namely, the Christians of Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia (cf. 1 Peter 1:1). A reasonable estimate for the date of this epistle is sometime immediately prior to the fire in Rome during the summer of 64, because the epistle makes no reference to the Neronic persecution that followed that fire. In the present reading Peter speaks of Jesus as "Savior," a term more often used in the New Testament to refer to God the Father. Nonetheless, in these three chapters Peter uses the expression five times in reference to Jesus (1:1,11; 2:20; 3:2,18). In each case, except in 1:1, the use of "Savior" is joined with "Lord." This is very rare in early Christian literature. Christians today are so accustomed to speaking of Jesus as "Lord and Savior" that they do not realize that, were it not for 2 Peter, this expression would probably never have become so standard a part of Christian vocabulary. Verse 4 is the only place in the New Testament that describes Christians as "partakers of the divine nature" (theias koinonoi physeos), a very bold description of divine grace. However, an identical theology of grace is expressed elsewhere in the New Testament with a different vocabulary (e.g., 1 John 1:3; 3:2,9; John 15:4; 17:22-23; Romans 8:14-17, and so on). One also observes that this sharing in the divine nature is manifest as a particular "knowledge" (epignosis and gnosis) of God in Christ (verses 3,5,6,8). This knowledge of God, which is the substance of our call (klesis), must be made "secure" (bebaia ř verse 9) by the cultivation of virtue (verses 5-8) and the avoidance of sin (verse 9). Verse 11 identifies eternal life as "the kingdom of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ," an idea rare in early Christian literature (cf. Ephesians 5:5), which more often refers to the "kingdom of God." The expression here in 2 Peter forms the biblical basis for that line of the Nicene Creed that says of Jesus, "of whose kingdom there shall be no end."
Tuesday, August 6
2 Peter 1:12-21: After they have been initially catechized, it is imperative that believers be repeatedly instructed in the foundations of the faith, considering its various aspects in their mutually interpretive connections (what is called the "analogy of faith" in Romans 12:6), and more profoundly reflecting on its implications in their lives (traditionally called the moral sense or tropology). In the Holy Scriptures this ongoing endeavor of the Christian experience is known as "reminding," in the sense of a renewal of mind. It is also known as "remembering," in the sense of "putting the members back together again," seeing the diverse parts of the faith afresh, in relationship to the whole. This repeated pedagogical exercise of "calling to mind" is not an optional extra in the Christian life. (The only recognized "graduation ceremony" from Sunday School in the Christian Church is called the Rite of Burial.) It is, rather, an essential exercise of loving God with the whole mind, and the Bible often speaks of such remembrance (cf. 2 Peter 3:1-2; John 2:22; 12:16; Jude 3,5,17; 1 Corinthians 11:2,24). The present text represents such an exercise (verses 12,13,15), in order to bring PeterŐs readers more consciously into what he calls "the present truth," or, if you will, the truth as presence. By way of pursuing this living remembrance, Peter narrates for them a story they must have heard many times, the account of the LordŐs Transfiguration (also told in Mark 9, Matthew 17, and Luke 9), and he does this to serve, as it were, as a final testimony to them before his death (literally exodus in verse 15). Peter himself, that is to say, conscious that he will be outlived by one or more generations of Christians, writes this text as a legacy. This perspective is quite different from the earlier epistles preserved in the New Testament (PaulŐs, for instance), all of them composed, not with a direct view to the future generations of the Church, but in order to address concrete questions of the hour. In this respect, the Second Epistle of Peter more closely resembles the four canonical gospels, which also bear the mark of "legacy."
Wednesday, August 7
2 Peter 2:1-11: Like the apostle Paul taking leave of the Asian churches for the last time (Acts 20:29-30), part of PeterŐs final legacy here consists in a warning against false teachers who will arise from within the congregation after his departure. These will carry on the deceptive work of the false prophets, begun in Old Testament times and frequently spoken of in Holy Writ (for example, Deuteronomy 13, Jeremiah 28). Peter proceeds to provide biblical illustrations of this road to perdition. He cites, first of all, the fallen angels, those original tempters of our race (verse 4; Jude 6), and then goes on to speak of the destruction of sinners in the Deluge and the overthrow of Sodom and Gomorrah. Just as God spared Noah in the former instance, He spared Lot in the latter. PeterŐs picture of Noah as a "preacher of righteousness" is paralleled in his contemporary, Josephus (Antiquities 1.3.1), and in Clement of RomeŐs letter to the Corinthians a generation later (7.6). Likewise, PeterŐs very positive attitude toward Lot, which contrasts somewhat with the less flattering image in Genesis 19, reflects the picture of Lot in Wisdom 10:6 ("When the ungodly perished, [Wisdom] delivered the righteous man, who fled from the fire which fell down on the five cities") and will likewise appear again in Clement of Rome (11.1). The false teachers, by way of contrast, are said to introduce "heresies of damnation" (haireseis apoleias Ń verse 1), driven by fleshly lust (verses 2,10,13,14, 18) and rebellion (verses 1,10). Peter appreciates the moral "underground" of heresy. It is not simply false and unsound teaching, but a teaching prompted by lust and sustained by rebellion. If a person "loses the faith," he has usually lost something else first, such as chastity, or patience, or sobriety. Heresy, that is to say, is normally a cover for some deeper vice. This is one of the reasons that the Bible takes such a dim view of false teachers.
Thursday, August 8
2 Peter 2:12-22: Of the two Old Testament accounts given of Balaam (Numbers 22-24 [cf. Joshua 24:9-10; Micah 6:5; Deuteronomy 23:3-6] and Numbers 31), only the second portrays him in a bad light, as responsible for tempting the Israelites into lust and apostasy in their encounter with the Midianites. For this sin he is killed in IsraelŐs war with Midian (cf. Numbers 31:8; Joshua 13:22). PeterŐs negative comments on Balaam in the present text are similar to those found in rabbinical sources and in the Jewish philosopher Philo. His foul counsel to the Midianites, whereby young Israelite men were brought to their spiritual peril, was taken by early Christian writers as symbolic of the deceptions of false teachers. One finds this perspective, not only here in Peter, but also in Jude 11 and Revelation 2:14. Balaam is the very image of the deceitful teacher, and hardly any other group is criticized more often or more severely in Holy Scripture than the false teacher. One finds this condemnation in Peter, Jude, James, Paul, and John. In the present chapter the false teachers are singled out for deceiving the newly converted (verses 2,14,20-22), an especially vulnerable group of believers, who are not yet mature in solid doctrine. These latter, in the very fervor of their conversion, are often seduced by unreliable teachers who prey on their inexperience. In the mouths of false teachers, little distinction is made between liberty and libertinism (verse 19; 1 Peter 2:16; Romans 6:16; John 8:34), and they use the enthusiasm of the newcomer to change conversion to subversion.
Friday, August 9
2 Peter 3:1-9: Peter begins this chapter with an oblique reference to his earlier epistle. In verse 2, read "your apostles" instead of "us apostles." The singular significance of this verse is its juxtaposition of the New Testament apostles with the Old Testament prophets, which was an important step in recognizing the apostolic writings as inspired Holy Scripture. In 3:16, indeed, Peter does give such recognition to the letters of the apostle Paul. Both groups of men, Peter says, are being disregarded by those who scoff at the doctrine of the LordŐs return (verse 4). Since so many of the earliest Christians were of the opinion that the Lord would return during their own lifetime, His not doing so became for some an excuse for unbelief. It was only an excuse, however, not a justification, and Peter judged such unbelief to be prompted, not by what are called "sincere intellectual difficulties," but by the lustful desires of those who wanted an excuse for unbelief (verse 3). Later in the century, Clement of Rome would address that same problem when he wrote to the Corinthians (23.3). That heresy, which asserted that the "integrity" of the natural order precluded its being invaded from without by divine influences, rather curiously resembled the modern ideology of Naturalism, with which contemporary apologists must contend. Such a misinterpretation of the world, Peter wrote, is willful (verse 5); it is deliberately chosen, not on the basis of evidence, but in order to loose those who hold it from accounting to a final judgment by God. That misinterpretation was also based, Peter went on to say, on a misunderstanding of what is meant by "last times." This designation "last" is qualitative, not quantitative. It is not concerned with "how much," but "of what sort." The "last times" are not quantified; their limit is not known to us, and that limit is irrelevant to their quality. The last times are always the last times, no matter how long they last. Since the first coming of the Lord Jesus Christ, we are always within the eleventh hour, and this designation means only that it is the hour before the twelfth; it can last as long as God wants it to.
Saturday, August 10
2 Peter 3:10-18: Since only God knows the length of the eleventh hour, the LordŐs return will confound all human calculations of its timing. The simile of the thief in the night, for instance, must not be taken literally, because it is never nighttime everywhere at the same time, and the Bible contains no hint that the Lord will return to the earth by following the sequence of its appointed time zones! This comparison with the thiefŐs nocturnal entrance was doubtless common among the early Christians (Matthew 24:43; Luke 12:39; 1 Thessalonians 5:2; Revelation 3:3; 16:5). It will all happen with a "rush," this onomatopoeia corresponding to the Greek verb rhoizedon in verse 10. Watchfulness, therefore, and a holy life are the proper responses to our true situation in this world (verse 11; Matthew 24:42-51; 1 Thessalonians 5:1-11). Both heaven and earth will be renewed (verse 13; Isaiah 65:17; 66:22; Revelation 21:1; cf. Romans 8:19-22). The expression "without spot and without blame" in verse 14 (aspiloi kai amometoi) contains the negative forms of the adjectives describing the false teachers in 2: 13 (spiloi kai momoi). PeterŐs reference to Paul indicates his familiarity with more than one Pauline epistle and probably suggests that PaulŐs letters were already being gathered into collections and copied. Peter likewise testifies to the difficulties attendant on the understanding of PaulŐs message. Christian history bears a similar witness, alas, in the modern divisions that have arisen among Christians over their differing interpretations of Paul. Paul himself was aware, even then, that some Christians were distorting his thought (Romans 3:8).